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量天尺Hylocereus undatus

时间:2013-07-18 15:31来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 量天尺 学名( Scientific Name ): Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton Rose 英文名( English Common Name ): nightblooming cactus 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 火龙果 异名( Synonym ): Cereus tricostatus Rol.-






中文名(Chinese Name):量天尺
学名(Scientific Name):Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & Rose
英文名(English Common Name):nightblooming cactus
别名(Chinese Common Name):火龙果
异名(Synonym):Cereus tricostatus Rol.-Goss.;Cereus trigonus var. guatemalensis Eichler;Hylocereus guatemalensis (Eichlam) Britton & Rose;Hylocereus tricostatus (Gosselin) Britton & Rose
科属(Family & Genus):仙人掌科(Cactaceae)量天尺属
形态特征(Description):攀援肉质灌木,长3-15米,具气根。分枝多数,延伸,具3角或棱,长0.2-0.5米,宽3-8(-12)厘米,棱常翅状,边缘波状或圆齿状,深绿色至淡蓝绿色,无毛,老枝边缘常胼胀状,淡褐色,骨质;小窠沿棱排列,相距3-5厘米,直径约2毫米;每小窠具1-3根开展的硬刺;刺锥形,长2-5 (-10)毫米,灰褐色至黑色。花漏斗状,长25-30厘米,直径15-25厘米,于夜间开放;花托及花托筒密被淡绿色或黄绿色鳞片,鳞片卵状披针形至披针形,长2-5厘米,宽0.7-1厘米;萼状花被片黄绿色,线形至线状披针形,长10-15厘米,宽0.3-0.7厘米,先端渐尖,有短尖头,边缘全缘,通常反曲;瓣状花被片白色,长圆状倒披针形,长12-15厘米,宽4-5.5厘米,先端急尖,具1芒尖,边缘全缘或啮蚀状,开展;花丝黄白色,长5-7.5厘米;花药长4.5-5毫米,淡黄色;花柱黄白色,长17.5-20厘米,直径6-7.5毫米;柱头20-24,线形,长3-3.3毫米,先端长渐尖,开展,黄白色。浆果红色,长球形,长7-12厘米,直径5-10厘米,果脐小,果肉白色。种子倒卵形,长2毫米,宽1毫米,厚0.8毫米,黑色,种脐小。花期7-12月。
分布(Distribution):产中美洲,我国南方广泛栽培。
用途(Use):FOC Vol. 13 Page 211
Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britton & Rose, Fl. Bermuda. 256. 1918.
量天尺 liang tian chi| Cactaceae  | Hylocereus
Cereus undatus Haworth, Philos. Mag. Ann. Chem. 7: 110. 1830.
Plants clambering or sprawling. Stems deep green, 3-15 m. Joints 20-50 × 3-8(-12) cm, winged or angled, margins of wings or angles coarsely crenate, horny. Areoles 3-6 cm apart, 2-5 mm in diam. Spines 1-3(-6) per areole, spreading in various directions, gray-brown, conic to subulate, 2-5(-10) mm. Flowers 25-30 × 15-34 cm. Receptacle tube funnelform. Sepaloids with greenish midrib and mostly white margin, lanceolate-linear to linear, 10-15 × 1-1.5 cm, margin entire, apex acuminate, reflexed. Petaloids erect to spreading, white, narrowly oblanceolate, margin entire or erose. Filaments cream, 5-7.5 cm; anthers linear, ca. 4.5 mm. Style cream, 14-20 cm, stout; stigmas 20-24, exserted, 2-2.3 mm, slender. Fruit red, globose to ellipsoid, 7-12.5 × 6-12 cm, with numerous triangular scales, umbilicus small; pulp white. Seeds obovate, ca. 2 × 1 mm. Fl. July-Dec.
Trees, rocks, maritime scrub; sea level to 300 m. S Fujian, S Guangdong, SW Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan [perhaps native to Mexico and Central America; widely introduced and escaped in tropical Asia, E Australia, and South America].
This species was first introduced to China in 1645. It is usually cultivated as a hedge, or for its edible fruit. The flower is often eaten in a vegetable soup in S Guangdong.
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